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    STUDIA THEOLOGIA ORTHODOXA - Issue no. 2 / 2013  
         
  Article:   IV. PRACTICAL THEOLOGY: THE CHRISTIAN ICONOGRAPHY OF THE GOTHIC PERIMETER. THE ITALIAN PAINTING.

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  Abstract:  The research done and called the Christian Iconography of the Gothic perimeter intends to present in a unified form the main changes that have been done at the beginning of the thirteenth century, when the Gothic style makes its majestic appearance in France. The evolution and development of large burg sites could have been done only around the great cathedrals that give impetus and define the whole society of the time, being composed of a hierarchy precisely split between monks, priests, vassals, artisans and the predominant people, delimited as a mass of the oppressed majority. Within this perimeter, Christian faith joins with local traditions creating works of art that characterizes regional and international productions. Sacred painting embraces monumental cathedrals apses generous spaces, for which it is often destined, and vaulted ceiling of the main nave. Subordinate to the architecture, as it will remain for a good long time, painting is required to appear on extensive areas of significant scenes from salvation history. The main topics are, of course, continued from Romanesque, but will become distinctive to Gothic style. For now, it can be certainly recognized the mode of representation defined in a precise circumstance as Italy, specifically Florence and Sienna. Creators will approach the Christian theme with great interest the defining the era, painting with feelings of reverence Mariological topics. The favorite theme of this period is The Virgin and Child, found at most creators. It is found both on tympanums of the sacred buildi3ngs and altars and sculptures dedicated to it. Alongside this, it should be noted that another iconographic topic of utmost importance is the worship of the deity; therefore it is of fundamental importance in the mural decorations, as well as in so often required altarpieces commissioned by major corporations and guilds of the time. Cimabue, Giotto and Masaccio will then turn to a system of painting that has its foundation in Byzantine art, but will move towards a discovery of the three-dimensional reality, transposed on two-dimensional surfaces of churches and chapels. Duccio and Simone Martini will focus their attention towards a delicate painting influenced by the Idealism and Humanism of the early Renaissance. Humanism characterized the Gothic and realistic style is its counterpart. Artistic productions will highlight themselves by their desire to faithfully record the reality and the present world from micro-Cosmos to the universal macro-Cosmos. Religious painting narrates with great objectivity the Scripture and Saints Life, they become sources of influence of the great creators. Painters grouped into guilds are becoming sensitive to the demands of the time and new commisions that abound, showing their creativity and professionalism. Gothic painting shows a multitude of Christian themes, while remaining sensitive to the traditional old scenes and From the New Testament, to which should be added those of hagiographical origin. Using a style and a poignant representation of the reality, the Gothic painting gives creators freedom, leading them slowly towards a new sacral configuration of their art - Renaissance.

Keywords: Gothic, Christian iconography, the Virgin and Child, Christ, fresco, tempera.
 
         
     
         
         
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