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    STUDIA GEOGRAPHIA - Issue no. 2 / 2003  

Authors:  I. MAC, L. BUZILĂ.
  Abstract:  The Correlation between Clay Strata and Geomorphologic Processes in Romania. Within the climates with high moisture content the clay strata carry out a double geomorphologic control: a) the clay strata are impermeable, maintaining and guiding the overland flow, thus having helped the development of linear erosion system (rill erosion, gully erosion, torrents); b) the absorption of water; process through which the clay strata turn plastic and have a lubricating effect. As a result some clay minerals can expand, this being a feature that enables the triggering of certain geomorphologic processes (solifluction, mudflow, landslides). The differentiation that occurred in morphogenesis across Romanian territory (between the intracarpathian and extracarpathian areas) are connected with many factors: 1. - the genesis of clay deposits in the tectonically active area of Transylvanian Basin or those formed on platform, due to deposition of material in epicontinental sea (Moldavian Plateau); 2. - The mineralogical composition with a high geomorphologic sensitivity. This is the case of the clays that bear in their structure the minerals like montmorillonite; 3. - The thickness of clay strata, which is in connection with the deepening of landslides and with the number of surfaces affected by landslides; 4. - The type of geological structures, with the occurrence of landslides on the monoclinal surfaces, anticline flanks and on the slopes of the diapiric domes; 5. - The location of the clay deposits being either bottom-set beds or near the ground surface, types of rock in which they are comprised, and the height where they are situated. In the studied areas the most active geomorphologic processes are those related with Badenian Sarmatian and Pliocene clay strata, this characteristic causing very aggressive gully erosion, mudflows, catastrophic landslides and small surface landslides.  
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