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    STUDIA GEOGRAPHIA - Issue no. 1 / 2010  


The Primary Forms and Stages of Inhabiting Sibiu Depression. From an archeological point of view, the territory of Sibiu depression can be included in the early stages of the process of anthropogenesis. Thus, the flint hand axe, the universal tool of the age, along with quartzite tools, silex scrapers, spearheads - all of them denoting the basic occupations of the age, namely hunting and harvesting - represent the Stone Age. The Neolithic period is archaeologically testified by the discoveries from Orlat, Şura Mică, Poplaca, Sibiu-Guşteriţa, Cristian, Cisnădie, as well as by the populations of farmers and shepherds, who were carriers of Vinca, Turda, and Petreşti cultures. During the Bronze Age, around 1700-800 B. C. the demographic density increases along with the number of close-knit settlements, some of them being fortified, and the main occupations were agriculture and fishing. The Geto-Dacian civilization during the Bronze Age is best illustrated by the discoveries from the rural settlements such as Mureş Culture in southern Transylvania and the New Culture in southeastern Transylvania. The Dacian civilization from the Iron Age represented one of the most developed societies of the time, along with the Greek and the Roman ones. Hoards of metal objects, coins, smelting pots for metals, as well as adornments, represent the historical vestiges of the Dacian settlements discovered on the territory of Sibiu Depression. The process of Romanization, which had started long before the Roman conquest of Dacia due to the economic, political and cultural contacts, was accelerated after 106 A. D. The Dacians continued to live on the old territory, gradually accepting the new economic and socio-political framework established by the Roman rule, thus adapting to the new civilization, a process, which led to the birth of the Daco-Roman population. The Romanization continued even after the rule of the Roman Emperor Aurelianus, known in English as Aurelian (271-272 A. D. ), and the process of Romanization itself suffered the influence of the Eastern Roman Empire, as well. Archaeological research on this period has revealed the progression and the evolution of settlements in time, and the hierarchical organization of dwellings against a background, which was predominantly agricultural. Thus, an economy based on agro-pastoralism, indicating a sedentary, rural life, is of significant importance for Bratei culture, spread throughout the entire territory of Dacia. It also played an important part in the development of the later autochthonous Ipotesti-Candesti material culture (6th-7th century A. D. ) and especially Dridu culture (8th-11th century A. D. ), which confirmed the continuous existence of the population in Sibiu Depression.


Keywords: anthropogenesis, hunter-gatherer; the Neolithic; primitive agriculture, the Neolithic Revolution, the Geto-Dacian population; The Bronze Age; the Iron Age, Daco-Romans, agro-pastoralist economy.
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